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“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

时间:2017-06-08 05:56:23 编辑:中国日报双语新闻 来源:网络

高考在中国,是一种仪式,少年走过高考,走向成年,走向未知世界,或鲜衣怒马,或酸甜苦辣,冷暖自知。如果没有了高考,对于大多数人而言,可能是信仰丧失般的迷茫。

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

1966年,高考制度被废止,堵住了国家获取真正有才能的高等人才之路。幸运的是,1977年,高考制度恢复,青年们重拾希望,走进考场,开启新的人生旅程。

那些对知识充满信仰的青年,在黯淡的日子,并没有放弃希望。高考成功后,他们变成了社会的中流砥柱,成为这个国家闪耀的建设者——他们就是77级考生。

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

图片来源:新华社

作为一名教育专家,厦门大学教育学院院长刘海峰取得了许多学术成就,也获得了很多学术头衔:厦门大学考试研究中心主任,长江学者特聘教授,国家教育咨询委员会委员、国家教育考试指导委员会委员……在他看来,这些成绩的取得,都离不开40年前的那场高考。

Although Liu Haifeng, director of the Institute of Education at Xiamen University, has won a host of achievements and been awarded many honorary titles during his academic career, he firmly believes his success is the result of an event that occurred four decades ago.

1977年的冬天,18岁的刘海峰和全国570万名考生一起走进高考考场。这一年,中断了11年的高考制度得以恢复,全国知识青年一片欢腾。这年的高考,是新中国成立以来唯一一次在冬天举行的高考,也是中国高考史上录取率最低的一次,只有不足5%的考生最终被大学录取。刘海峰便是其中之一。

In the winter of 1977, the then-18-year-old hopeful was one 5.7 million people who walked into exam halls nationwide to take the first gaokao in more than 10 years, after it was suspended during the “cultural revolution” (1966-76).

The 1977 exam is notable for two things: first, it was the only gaokao to be held during winter, not summer as is customary; and second, it resulted in the lowest acceptance rate since the 1952 creation of the exam and its related admissions system as just 5 percent of examinees were granted places at colleges. Liu was among the lucky ones.

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

图片来源:新华社

刘海峰清楚地记得,当年他高考第一志愿是福建师范大学中文系,第二志愿是福建师范大学历史系,第三志愿是厦门大学中文系。最终,高考取得302分高分的他(满分400)被厦门大学历史系录取。人生新篇章就此开启,此后40余年,他一直在这所浪漫的海边大学学习、教学以及开展研究工作。

Though he had applied to study Chinese literature at Fujian Normal University, after passing the exam he was unexpectedly offered a place in the history department at Xiamen University in his hometown in Fujian province. That set him on a decades-long path of teaching and research at the prestigious establishment.

直到今天,已经成为中国考试研究领域知名专家的刘海峰,谈起40年前的这场考试,依旧感慨万千:高考的恢复,是国家和民族复兴的起点,也是时代的拐点。它不仅是教育领域的重大事件,也是整个社会和中国历史上的重大事件。恢复高考后的“新三届”——77、78和79级大学生的人数大概是100万。这100万人,以及之后高考选拔的千百万人才,成为了各行各业的骨干,成为了推动、践行改革开放的中坚力量。

For him, the revival of the exam was not just a hugely significant event for the examinees, but also a turning point for China.

“The gaokao in 1977 and the following two years selected about 1 million talents, who are called ‘the new three classes’ (of 1977, 1978 and 1979). Later, many became well-known figures and pillars in all walks of life and they played key roles in China’s reform and opening-up, laying a firm foundation for the country’s economic takeoff and today’s prosperity,” said Liu Haifeng, director of the Institute of Education at Xiamen University.

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

刘海峰今昔对比:左摄于1977年11月,用在高考报名表和准考证上的照片;右摄于2017年,刘海峰所在的厦门大学教育研究院主办恢复高考40周年学术研讨会

“考上的大多是坚持学习的人”

恢复高考的消息传来时,王辉耀在四川金堂县插队已经一年半了。19岁的他是1600多万上山下乡知青中的一员。“高考”二字对他来说已经变得遥远而陌生。1966年高考制度被废除后,上大学不再需要考试,变成了推荐工农兵制度。

For Wang, then age 19, gaokao was a distant and irrelevant word. When the exam was suspended in 1966, it was replaced by a college admissions policy that relied solely on recommendation, which meant only workers, farmers and soldiers were selected to attend college, irrespective of academic achievement or lack of it.

在金堂县插队的日子,王辉耀至今印象深刻:在茅屋中与老鼠“共眠”;每天早上五六点钟就出门干活,到晚上十点才能收工;遇到雨天,根本没办法穿鞋在泥泞的乡村小路上行走,只能光脚,大脚拇指要使劲压住路面;没有自来水和电,照明靠每月配给的半斤煤油;饮水靠喝井里不卫生的生水;寒冬喝辣椒水取暖……

Wang, born and raised in a large city, quickly found life difficult and disappointing: he “cohabited” with mice in a thatched cottage that lacked electricity, sanitation or boiled water; worked from 5 am to 10 pm every day; walked barefoot along muddy lanes on rainy days; and drank water boiled with chilies to keep warm in winter.

当时的王辉耀心里充满着不解和绝望,为什么古今中外都是随着社会发展,人口不断从农村迁移到城市,而中国却恰恰相反?

但他隐隐感到这样的局面不会持久,理性和常识肯定会回归,虽然他也不知道这一天会在什么时候到来。抱着这样的信念,王辉耀开始自学。喜欢外语的他,每天跟着收音机里的教学节目学习英语。

“However, I had a strong feeling that such an abnormal situation wouldn’t last long. I knew the gaokao would be revived sooner or later, but didn’t know exactly when.”

With that belief, Wang studied during the evenings. He read all the books available to him and learned English by listening to radio programs.

终于,王辉耀等到了恢复高考的这一天,似乎比他预想的还要早一些。1977年10月12日晚,公社广播的大喇叭里传来了恢复高考的消息。他激动万分——改变命运的机会来了。

高考后,王辉耀被广州外国语学院(今广东外语外贸大学)英美文学专业录取,毕业后成为国家经贸部官员。1984年赴加拿大攻读工商管理的硕士和博士学位,之后在国外多家大型公司任高管。90年代中期,王辉耀回到国内,开始自己创业。

Having passed the exam, Wang studied English and American Literature at Guangdong University of Foreign Studies in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, becoming an official at the Ministry of Commerce after graduation.

In 1984, he traveled to Canada to study for a master’s and a doctorate in business administration, and then worked at senior positions for several large companies. In the mid-1990s, he returned to China and started a number of businesses.

目前,王辉耀身兼多职——中国与全球化智库主任,中国国际人才专业委员会会长、欧美同学会/中国留学人员联谊会副会长、国务院参事等。他将40年前的那场高考视为之后这一切的起点。“如果没有当年的恢复高考,之后的这一切可能都不会发生。”

“If not for the gaokao that year, all those things would never have happened.”

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

王辉耀今昔对比:左为大学期间王辉耀(右二)和同学在虎门炮台;右为现在

那年冬天不冷

1977年汤敏24岁,在广西南宁一所中学任数学老师。那年冬天,他和他的学生一起参加了高考,最终被武汉大学数学系录取。

In 1977, Tang Min was a 24-year-old math teacher at a middle school in Nanning, the capital of the Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. He took the exam together with his students and was admitted by the math department of Wuhan University in Hubei province.

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

如今已成为宏观经济学者、国务院参事的汤敏回忆道,那年广西报考的年龄上限是25岁,当时他已经24了,这是最后一次机会参加考试,必须分秒必争,全力以赴。

“Twenty-five was the upper age limit for examinees that year, and I was already 24. I treated it as my last opportunity to take the exam, so I seized every minute, trying to make the best preparations,” said Tang, now a macroeconomic researcher and a State Council consultant.

高考中断11年,让大量青年丧失了报考机会。在恢复高考的最初几年里,每年都有大量的考生参加。有像汤敏这样和学生一起上考场的,也有一家兄弟姐妹一起上考场的。刘海峰和他的弟弟就是这样的例子。据刘海峰回忆,从宣布恢复高考到正式举行,只有不到两个月的复习时间。当时他们哥儿俩在一间6平米的屋子里,没日没夜地复习。

刘海峰热爱文学,语文是他的强项,几乎没怎么复习就考了87分。数学和史地就比较头疼了。当年高中的时候没怎么学过,只能从头开始自学。“有些知识,像各个国家的首都之类的,都是那段时间自学才知道的。这些我们以前都没学过。”

Students such as Liu, who planned to pursue arts-based academic paths at college, were tested in four subjects, similar to today’s gaokao: Chinese, math, politics, and a combination of history and geography.

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考

1978年春,清华大学新生 图片来源:新华社

当时几乎所有的中学都开设了补习班,免费帮人们补课、复习,备战高考。刘海峰记得,有些课是在礼堂里讲,因为来听课的人实在太多了,礼堂坐不下,有的人就趴在窗子上听课,大家脸上都洋溢着高考的幸福,根本没人在意是坐着还是站着听课。不仅是在学校,整个社会都弥漫着恢复高考的兴奋,所有的人都在谈论高考。福建的冬天,12月已经是冻手的季节了,但是那年没有感到寒冷。

“So many people came to the classes that the lecture rooms were unable to hold them all, resulting in some having to stand outside at the window to listen to the teachers.However, no one complained. It seemed like everyone was filled with energy and hope, and they were thirsty for knowledge. The atmosphere was really fantastic,” he said, adding that although he often had chilblains on his hands in the harsh winter, he doesn’t remember feeling cold.

他们,也是77年高考考生

国家总理李克强

1955年生于安徽,1974年到凤阳县插队。后参加1977年高考,被北京大学法律系录取。

Born in 1955 in Anhui province, Li was sent to work as an “educated youth” at a village in Fengyang county, Anhui, in 1974. He was among the 5.7 million young people who took the first gaokao after a 11-year suspension in 1977 and was admitted to Peking University’s Law School.

中国作家协会副主席陈建功

1949年生于广西北海,8岁时随家人搬迁到北京。1968年,陈建功从人民大学附属中学毕业后,成为京西煤矿的一名工人。1977年参加高考,考入北京大学中文系。

Born in 1949 in Beihai, Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, Chen moved to Beijingwith his family when he was 8. In 1968, he graduated from the High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China and became a coal miner in western Beijing during the “cultural revolution” (1966-76). He was admitted to the Chinese literature department of Peking University after passing the gaokao in 1977.

北京大学法学教授姜明安

1951年生于湖南汨罗,1969年高中毕业后到部队服役。后参加1977年高考,被北京大学法律系录取。

Born in 1951 in Miluo, Hunan province, Jiang graduated from high school in 1969 before serving in the army. He passed the gaokao in 1977 and was admitted to Peking University’s Law School. He began working at the university after graduating in 1982 and is now an expert on the Constitution and administrative law.

中房集团理事长孟晓苏

1949年生于江苏苏州,4岁时随父母到北京。“文革”期间进入北京汽车制造厂工作。1977年参加高考后考入北京大学中文系新闻专业。

Born in 1949 in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, Meng moved to Beijing with his parents at age 4. During the “cultural revolution”, he worked at the Beijing Automobile Works, later part of BAIC Motor Corp. After taking the gaokao, he studied journalism at Peking University.

哈佛大学教授袁钧瑛

1958年生于上海,高中毕业后到上海机械厂做车床学徒,1977年高考中以上海市高考状元的身份考入复旦大学生物系。后赴美国留学,1989年获哈佛大学神经学博士学位,之后受聘于哈佛大学医学院,任助理教授,2000年年至今任哈佛大学医学院终身教授。多年从事于细胞死亡机制的研究,是世界细胞死亡研究领域的开拓者之一。

Born in 1958 in Shanghai, Yuan was assigned to work in a textile machinery plant in 1976. She gained the highest score in Shanghai in the 1977 gaokao and went on to study biology at the city’s Fudan University. She earned a doctorate in neurology from Harvard University in 1989 and became an assistant professor, obtaining tenure in 2000. Yuan is best known for her work in apoptosis, the process of cell death in multicellular organisms.

最后,来看看中国日报记者的街头采访,听听路人们的高考回忆吧……

“愿你走出半生,归来仍是少年”:40年前,他们也曾参加高考